The Motivation of Serving and its development in the process of formation of the citizen’s personality
The problem of building a civil society in Ukraine has attracted the attention of thinkers and politicians of different times. It should be noted that the construction of civil society in any country is possible only in case of the readiness of this majotiry of its citizens. Becoming a citizen – this is primarily the formation of an active personality, which formed the appropriate features of character, emotions and feelings, thinking and motivation. Right the motivation that determines the orientation of person thinking, is a reflection of personal needs and desires.
The leading motives of a conscious citizen are the motives of serving the society, the state, and humanity. How exactly is the formation of these motives? What induces a person to leave the usual comfortable conditions, to fill his life with the meaning and values of service to others? To answer this question, one should turn to the most consistent theories of personality motivation.
According to W. James, the development, integration of the individual is always associated with the plurality of human “Self”, which expresses different needs. Among such basic components, the researcher singled out 1) a physical person (biological “self”); 2) a social person (social “self”); 3) spiritual person (spiritual “self”) .
To the physical person, the scientist relates primarily to the body organization, clothing, family, home comfort. According to W. James, we have an unconscious desire to protect our bodies, to pick up clothes decorated with ornamets, to protect our parents, wife and children, to find our own corner in which we could live, improving our home conditions.
Describing the signs of a social person, W. James points out that recognition of our personality from other memebers of the human race makes us a social person. We are not only herdcreature, not only love to be in our society, but have an innate ability to attract the attention of others and make them a favorable impression.
Spiritual personality, according to W. James, has significant differences. It is inherent by the complete unification of separate states of consciousness, specifically taken spiritual abilities and properties. This union, at any given moment, can become the object of our thoughts and cause emotions, similar to the emotions that we have produced by other parties of our personality.
In this way, the motivation of serving, dedication, devotion to man and humanity is possible only under the condition of coordinated activity of the social and spiritual “self” personality. How is the struggle and balancing of internal motives in time? For the answer it is advisable to consider one of the most favous psychological concepts that describe the origins of human behavior – the theory of motivation A. Maslow. According to this hierarchical concept, higher needs can lead an individual’s behavior only to the extent that satisfying lower needs. To these deeds, the scientist included the needs of physiological, safety, love and belonging to the human community, in the assessment and respect, as well as the needs for self-actualization (the realization of human potentiality, abilities and talents). Unsatisfied needs lead to mental disorders, neuroses.
It should be recognized that this part of Maslow’s theory of motivation is widely used not only in psychological studies but also in the field of econimics, management, law, human resources, which testifies to its sufficient versatility, the ability to explain the motives of a large number of people. At the same time, the statement that the need for self-actualization is verifiable as a person’s need seems questionable.
His objection, in particular, leads to an understanding of human history not only as the history or endless wars and political manipulation, but also as a development process for the person himself, his improvement and spiritual growth. It is this aspect of history, unfortunately, is the smallest extent covered in school textbooks. However, if we ask the question of the hightest achievements of humanity, then, undoubtedly, the answermust include exactly what raises a person over the entire animal world of the planet – humanity, creativity, and spirituality, which should become the main subject of psychological knowledge.
In his later writings, A. Maslow divided psychology into two types: deficient and existential. Deficit psychology focuses on the study of behavious whose purpose is to meet the natular needs of man (hunger, pain, fear). Existential psychology, by contrast, studies metamation, human behaviour and its experiences at the stage of the highest awareness.
Household (common), spiritual values – truth, kindness, beauty, integrity, dichotomous transcendence, perfection, justice . An important indicator of personal growth, the scientist considered emotional love – love of the essence of another person, his life, love, which does not seek to own the subject, but appreciates the best that is in another person. Emotional love causes the vertex experiences.
As can be seen from Fig. 1, personality motivation with a high spiritual potential is based on the motivation of spiritual self-improvement (the reproduction of a beautiful and perfect self); service (helping the needy, multiplication of good); wisdom (search and multiplication of truth); righteousness (observance of spiritual principles, reproduction of harmony in one’s own life) and holiness (the adoption and fulfillment of a spiritual mission, spiritual asceticism). Consider these moves in more detail.
Fig. 1 Motivation of the spiritual development of the person, based on the vasis of the pyramid of needs A. Maslow
The emergence of motives for spiritual self-improvement is sometimes a process determined from the outside, and sometimes – due to thelogic of internal transformations.
As S. Grof notes, “It happens that ‘normal’ person with surprise and anxiety notice in their inner world sometimes sudden, sometimes gradual changes. They may come after a lane of frustration or after an emotional shock, such as the loss of a loved one or a close friend. Nevertheless, often changes occur without any particular reason during the period of enjoyment of strong health and well-being. They begin with a sense of dissatisfaction, incompleteness, when a person seems to be: ‘Something is missing’. This ‘something’ is immaterial and uncertain, it is illusory, and it cannot be described in words.
To such a state is added to varying degrees the feeling of unreality and emptiness of ordinary life. Personal cases, which have previously absorbed all attention and interest, psychologically seem to go to the background, lose their importance and value. New problems are growing. The individual is trying to understand the origins and purpose of lifef. Asked why so many things he perceived to believe. For example, what is the meaning of his personal suffering and the suffering of ther people? What justice can be said, if so many inequalities are in the fate of people?” [1, p. 44-45].
Finding answers to the most important questions of life is evidence of taking responsibility, first of all, for himself, as evidence of psyhoclogical ‘adult’ personality. The motives of spiritual self-perfection are a manifestation of conscious will, aimed at transforming oneself in accordance with the idel “Self”, achieving new heights in various spheres of life. To alarge extent, transcendental representations of perfect, perfect determine the human way of life.
In the case of the falsity of ideals and values, self-improvement has a destructive vector.
Then, a person impoves the skills and behaviours that are harmful to him and his surroundings.
For example, a thief can improve his ability to unlock safes, and the manipulator has its own ability to conquer the will of others.
In contrast, a person who strives for spiritual self-perfection manifests responsibility for his own life, the direction of his behavior and activity, life-creation and self-realization in the direction of Beauty, Goodness and Truth.
In the age-old dimension, the need for self-improvement nanifests itself unconsciously in an early childhood, when nature encourages the child to repeat the same actions many times, bringing simple skills to perfection, mastering the body itself. In the future, the teen begins to pay more attention to his reflection in the mirror, its proportions. Guys are trying to increase muscle, while girls use cosmetics to improve their own appeal. In youth, with the developlent of consciousness and self-awareness, spiritual self-improvement can become a conscious need for a person.
When a person is confidently pusuing the path of spiritual self-improvement, he wants to share his finds, achievements and discoveries with others. Thus, the motivation for serving, helping the needy, is formed.
The motives of serving, helping those in needs result in the implementation of the ideal ideas of man about good; encourage the person to devote his life to the lives of his neighbors, to find adequate methods and means of assistance to the needy. Effective help can be not only material: sometimes for a person there is a vital need for a good word, a look, a positive emotion.
The motives of serving, helping the needy determine the responsibitily of man, first of all, in relation to others, to the world as a whole. If a person does not feel necessary for someone, life seems to him devoid of meaning. So the losss of loved ones, friends are perceived as one of the most difficult life tests.
In the age-old dimension, the motivation forserving, helping the needy may result from the child receiving love and care from parents and relatives. Accumulation of a sufficient amoung of this positive vital evergy leads to the need for its transwer to others. So, becoming parents, ment and women are trying to convey to children the best that they have received from their parents. In the future, with the development of consciousness, one can understand that society and the whole world are its family, which may require dedication and ministry.
However, helping others, people often make mistakes, may impose their help, which is perceived as a disservice. The desire to predict the consequences of their own words and dactions directs the person to comprehend wisdom.
Motivation of wisdom leads to the desire for constant self-knowledge and enrichment of knowledge, serach of the most valuable information, comprehension of events of own life and life of thers, arrangement and realization of life experience. An illustration in this context is the parable of King Solomon, who instead of glory, riches and all sorts of things asked god for wisdom. As a result, he received both wisdom and wealth, and many other blessings.
To acquire wisdom, the age of man and the diversity of his experience are not decisive – the ability to comprehend experience, conscious attitude to life is more important. Yes, and in the old age, some people do not see the causal realtionships between the events of their own lives, complaining about its pointlessness. For others, each event, every meeting ha a sacred meaning, everything exists in single pattern of a single life. A wise person makes the least of life mistakes and is able to shre his wisdom with those who are ready for her perception.
Further development of the individual is also due to the orientation of such motives as righteousness and holiness. Under righteousness (from “rightness”, “rigghteousness”, “truth”) we understand the ability to live according to the laws of conscience, simplicity and openness, human ovservance of universal principles of existence. In religious terms, righteousness relates to the avoidance of sin. The motives of righteousness contribute to the realization of the ideas of Beauty, Goodness and Truth in the everyday life of a person; they induce the harmonization of personal life with the life of Nature, the Universe, direct words, acitions and actions in the direction of spiritual values, universal morality. Righteousness of the person makes it worthy to imitate not only contemporaries, but also future generations.
The foundations of righteousness are prescrived in all the religious and secular laws of humanity, ranging from the first tables of Moses (which he smashed before the crowd), 10 Commandments on other tables, the secular laws of the Gortini (Crete), and the teachings of Jesus Christ. The analysis of the contents of the highter spiritual instructions of different times and peoples shows their approximate identity, orientation on the construction of human life on the principles of Beauty, Goodness, Truth and Love. For example, in the teachings of the Prince of Kievan Rus Vladimir Monomakh (1053-1125), children are combined with the presentation of their own self-improvement, and about serving others in society as follows:
“It happened to others as you would like to treat you.
Strenghten your body and sould, enlighten your mind.
Be better tomorrow than you are today.
Do not let the strong to humiliate the weak.
Do not leave the sick; do not forget about the poor.
Do not have pride in mind or heart.
Remember, when you know everything well; and study, when you do not know.
Live for the Motherland and love humanity.”
In the process of human socialization, the number of laws, norms, and constitutions of different countries has steadily increased, thus removing person from the basic law of Creation – Love. Therefore, unlike social legal orientation, a person who adheres to tighteousness, is guided by higher laws, “written down on tables of the human heart”, and manifested in conscience.
The concept of holiness is used in the language of speech more often “in such phrases as”, “holy man”, “holy love”, “holy devotion”, “holy life”, “Holy Scripture”, “holy duty”, “holy truth”. Close to it is also the concept of “sanctification”, “dedication”. The notions of holiness characterize a highter degree of self-realization, when a person deliberately devotes his destiny to service, transforms his own life into a spiritual feat.
In this way, righteousness is a preliminary step, when the fulfillment of certain rules, guidelines and principles of life leads to qualitatively new transformations of the individual – the transition to spiritual consciousness, the constant awarenss of his own spiritual self. Many philosophers associate the achievements of holiness with the realization of absolute unity or unanimity (V.S. Solovyov).
The construction of civil society can be seen as a necessary stage in the process of building a spiritual society, which dreamed philosophical idealists – Campanella, Hegel and others.
To realize the best ideas accumulated by humanity it is necessary to take into account modern achievements in the field o fhuman studies, in particular, motivational theories of personality development. Creating psychological and pedagogical conditions conducive to the formation of a citizen’s personality is a complex and responsible task, the realization of which in family education, the education system of any state will ensure its rapid spiritual and economic progress.
- Grof Stanislav. Spiritual crisis: articles and studies / Grof Stanislav. – M., 1995. – 255 p.;
- Maslow Abraham. New Frontiers of Human Nature / M.: Meaning, 1999. – 425 p.;
- Philipchuk G.G. National education: personality and society. Collection of scientific works / Georgy Filipchuk. – Chernovtsy: Green Bukovina, 2013. – 844 p.
Information about the author
||Pomitkin Edward Olexandrovich
||doctor of psychology, professor
||Ivan Zyazun Institute for Pedagogical Education and Adult Education
National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine,
Head of the Department of Labor Psychology
||Ukraine 04060, Kiev, 36 / 231M. Bullakhovskogo street